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Diabetes mellitus is a long-term condition in which the body’s ability to manage blood glucose levels is impaired.
Glucose from the meals we eat is not utilized properly because the body does not make enough insulin. Death and disability are the leading causes in the United States and worldwide.
Diabetes mellitus is characterized by hyperglycemia, which is a state of high levels of blood glucose, and hypoglycemia, a state of low blood glucose. Hyperglycemia is usually caused by insulin resistance, which is the body’s response to excess glucose in the blood.
The term “diabetes mellitus” refers to a condition in which the body either does not make or does not utilize insulin properly to maintain blood sugar levels at a healthy level.
Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose, or blood sugar, move from the blood into other body tissues where it can be used as energy.
Because of a lack of insulin, there can be high blood sugar, which can lead to other health problems.
There are two common forms of diabetes:
- Diabetes type 1: It is mainly caused by genetic factors. The immune system targets insulin-producing cells in the body in Type 1 diabetes. Consequently, the body is unable to create enough insulin.
- Diabetes type 2: This is related to environment and lifestyle changes. Although insulin is synthesized but body cannot use it properly.
Diabetic Type 2 is the most prevalent kind of diabetes, in which the body’s cells are no longer able to respond to insulin, resulting in the need for greater insulin levels to meet the body’s requirements. Type-2 diabetes affects around 90% to 95% of diabetics.
What is Prediabetes?
The term prediabetes refers to a condition in which the body produces enough glucose in the blood but the body’s cells are not able to use it properly.
Diabetes is more likely to develop as a result of the disorder. Prediabetes can progress to diabetes over time. When insulin isn’t being used effectively, blood sugar levels might rise, which is a symptom of diabetes.
An early warning indication of prediabetes is when a person’s blood glucose levels rise over normal but remain within normal limits.
Common Signs of Prediabetes
Most common signs of prediabetes are:
- Frequent urination,
- Unexplained weight loss or gain
- Dry mouth
- Blurry vision
- Excessive thirst
- Tingling in fingers
- Increased hunger
If left untreated, pre-diabetes can develop into Type 2 diabetes, a dangerous condition in which the body is unable to use insulin effectively to maintain normal blood glucose levels.
Causes of Prediabetes
Prediabetes has no recognised etiology.
However, genetics and family history appear to play a significant impact. People with pre-diabetes are clearly unable to metabolise sugar (glucose) effectively.
Food is the primary source of glucose in your body. As your body breaks down meals, sugar enters the bloodstream. Insulin reduces blood sugar levels by allowing sugar to enter cells.
The pancreas, a gland that sits beneath the stomach, produces insulin. When you eat, your pancreas releases insulin into your system. The pancreas reduces the amount of insulin released into your blood as your blood sugar drops.
This process is slowed down or halted altogether if you have diabetes. This results in your bloodstream being filled with sugar rather than being utilised by your cells. This is conceivable for the reasons listed below:
- Hypoinsulinemia (lack of adequate insulin produced by the pancreas)
- As your cells get more tolerant to insulin, they restrict the amount of sugar they allow into your body.
Associated Risk Factors
Type 2 diabetes and prediabetes are both made more likely by the same risk factors. These are some of the things to keep in mind:
Prediabetes is most usually brought on by being overweight. Fatty tissue, particularly in and between the muscle and skin around your waist, makes insulin more difficult to reach cells.
2. Size of the waist
A large waistline may be a sign of insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is more likely to develop in men and women whose waists measure 40 inches or more around the middle or 35 inches around the hips.
The use of red and processed meats, as well as sugar-sweetened beverages, has been associated to the development of pre-diabetes.
You’re more prone to acquire pre-diabetes if you’re sedentary.
Diabetes can occur at any age, although the probability of getting prediabetes grows substantially after the age of 45.
Afamily history of type 2 diabetes puts you at greater risk of acquiring prediabetes.
7. Ethnicity or race
Pre-diabetes is more common in various categories of people, including African-Americans, Hispanics, American Indians, and Asian-Americans.
8. Pregnancy while diabetic
You and your child are more likely to develop prediabetes if you have diabetes throughout your pregnancy (gestational diabetes) (gestational diabetes).
9. Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
Menstrual abnormalities, excessive hair growth, and obesity are all indications of polycystic ovarian syndrome, which puts women at greater risk for developing type 2 diabetes.
If you have a condition that frequently interrupts your rest, you’re more likely to develop insulin resistance. Obstructive sleep apnea is more common among overweight and obese people.
Smoke from tobacco
Cigarette smoking increases the chance of acquiring type 2 diabetes in those with prediabetes as well as in people who already have the disease.
Pre-diabetes is also more likely in people who have:
- Diabetic hypertension
- Low amounts of the “good” cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL).
There is a type of fat in your blood called triglycerides that increases your risk of cardiovascular disease.
Prediabetes is connected to long-term damage to your heart, blood vessels and kidneys, even if you don’t become type 2 diabetes.
Heart attacks that go unnoticed are also linked to pre-diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes can develop from prediabetes, and this can result in:
- Diabetic hypertension
- Cholesterol levels are too high.
- Coronary artery disease
- Damage to the nervous system
- Liver cirrhosis
- Injuries to the eyes, such as blindness
Prevention of Prediabetes
Even if you have a family history of diabetes, you can avoid pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes by leading a healthy lifestyle. Doctors give medication to manage blood glucose levels in people with diabetes. In addition to medication, your doctor may advise you to make dietary and exercise modifications to better control your diabetes.
Some people may need to take additional medicines to help improve blood glucose control. Close monitoring of your blood glucose levels is essential to detecting diabetes early.
Even small changes can make a difference.
1. Diet Changes
Replace white, refined carbs with complex carbohydrates.
There are a variety of whole grain breads and cereals available, as well as fruits, vegetables, beans, lentils, nuts, seeds, and other grains, such as quinoa and amaranth.
When possible, lose weight, avoid high-calorie foods, eat less sugar and saturated fat, eat the right amount of fruits and vegetables, and exercise frequently and consistently.
2. Lose Weight
Make a resolution to slim down. Weight control is one of the best approaches to prevent or delay the onset of diabetes. Obese people are more likely to develop diabetes. Diabetes is more likely to occur in those who are obese.
Even a small weight gain can increase your risk. If you are overweight, work towards losing weight.
3. Have a Food Journal
Keep a food journal to track what and how much you eat. This will help you identify unhealthy foods and drinks that are contributing to excess weight or unhealthy blood glucose levels.
It can also help you make small changes to your diet so that you can enjoy more of the foods you enjoy and still maintain a healthy weight.
4. Physical Activity
Exertion of Muscles. A healthy lifestyle necessitates at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity most days of the week.
Exercises such as vigorous walking, dancing, and participating in sports are all examples of this.
The goal is to increase your overall movement. Some people find physical activity easier to do if they break it down into small chunks.
5. Avoid Smoking.
Tobacco is injurious to health. If you’re at risk of developing diabetes, avoid smoking tobacco.
6. Control Cholesterol and Blood Pressure
Keeping a check on your hypertension and cholesterol levels
In order to lower your blood glucose levels, you must consult with a diabetes doctor and build a treatment plan that includes dietary and medication adjustments as well as other approaches.
Reduce the amount of diabetes medication you take in order to keep your blood glucose levels in a normal range.
You may be prescribed diabetes medications to help with diabetes symptoms, such as increased thirst or urination. You may also be prescribed diabetes medications to help lower your blood glucose levels, such as those that are injected or used as a pill.